See Also: International Standard for Olive Oil (IOC)This very process, the same high heat technique used in producing canola, sunflower, and other vegetable oils, is why unregulated olive pomace oil sometimes contain harmful components known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzopyrene, which research has shown to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic. Production begins by blending the fruit into a paste. The hot air blows through the drier from a furnace which burns exhausted olive pomace. Once the oil in one extractor has been recovered, steam is injected to eliminate the hexane residue. Uvaol plays a protective role in the oxidation of lipoproteins of low density in vitro and has a protective effect on induced hepatic injuries. At present, Spain, Croatia, and other Mediterranean countries are making great efforts to find and develop new technologies for possible DOR detoxification and/or valorization. Özge Seçmeler, Charis M. Galanakis, in Innovations in Traditional Foods, 2019. The determination is carried out by titration of free fatty acids of oils, diluted in a suitable mixture of solvents, with an aqueous or ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. Normally, 8% crude pomace oil is extracted from the dried pomace and in the exhausted olive pomace the remaining oil is less than 1% oil. Points of Interest: Production begins by transforming the fruit into a paste. EU law also defines any oil containing 300–350 mg/kg of waxes and aliphatic alcohols above 350 mg/kg as crude pomace oil. The secoiridoids demethyloleuropein, ligstroside, 11-methyloleoside, and oleoside have also been detected in olive pomace (Fernández-Bolaños et al., 2002; Lesage-Meessen et al., 2001). It is not considered fit for human consumption in many countries, and under EU laws. Olive pomace is mainly used for the recovery of pomace oil (∼2% of pomace by weight) by solid-liquid extraction with hexane, followed by distillation and solvent recycling. After pressing olive oil, the left-over pulp and pits are blast-dried and stored outside an olive mill in large open pits, where it will be picked up for refining into olive pomace oil. No. Refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO). No 8/Corr.1 (1990); EC Reg. An exception to the norms is made for many of the olive oils and pomace oils formed by packages containing up to 100 liters. The bleached oil is removed from the activated earth and charcoal by filtration. Worldwide, there are about 750 million productive olive trees covering approximately 7 million ha, ∼98% of which is in the Mediterranean area . No 2568/91 Annex IX]. More articles on: olive oil fraud, olive oil grades, olive pomace oil, Trade Group Donates 190k Liters of Pomace Oil to Hospitality Sector in Spain. In the continuous plants, degumming and alkali neutralization go in series and the separation is taking place by the aid of centrifugation. Pomace olive oil needs high temperature to burn, making it the best option when it comes to deep frying. The principal goal of the bleaching step is to remove the unpleasant colors of the alkali neutralized pomace oil. Olive pomace should be delivered immediately to the extraction factory for drying in order to stop fermentation and preserve the oil from hydrolysis and enzymatic deterioration. Nowadays, composting methods are used (Cegarra et al., 2004) for applications in agriculture (organic fertilizers, soil conditioners). Deodorization is essentially a steam distillation at reduced pressures (4-8 mmHg) and elevated temperatures (180-200°C). With the three-phase system, 50–100 l of water is added to 100 kg of olive pastes to reduce viscosity and to improve oil separation. The most abundant phenolic compounds in pomace are hydroxytyrosol (∼1.8%), tyrosol, p-coumaric, and, to a lesser extent, vanillic acid. They can be separated from the oil phase by decantation in the batch systems or continuous centrifugation. The microbial production of polysaccharides and polymers (glucans, chitosan, polyhydroxyalkanoates, etc.) The difference between the two is that Olive Oil Pomace is refined, has less of the Olive scent, and it has a clearer yellow color than our Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Olive Oil Times Awarded for News Coverage by Italian Agriculture Group, Covid Relief Program Could Also Help Italy's Olive Oil Storage Problem, Second Wave of Covid Hampers Harvest in Greece, banned the sale of this grade of olive oil. In refined olive oils, the metal content is lower than in virgin oils, due to the refining process. Limits of the absorbances at 232 and 270 nm and ΔK value for each olive oil category fixed by the different International Organizations. but also results in the loss of valuable bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants. The method is based on the heat/oxidation/adsorption of the pigments to colorless or slightly colored materials, thus providing a product of pleasant color. In the wake of the pandemic, the Spanish interprofessional, Oriva, will distribute the refined oil to 12,500 hotels, restaurants and caterers.